## 92.13 Algebraic stacks and algebraic spaces

In this section we discuss some simple criteria which imply that an algebraic stack is an algebraic space. The main result is that this happens exactly when objects of fibre categories have no nontrivial automorphisms. This is not a triviality! Before we come to this we first do a sanity check.

Lemma 92.13.1. Let $S$ be a scheme contained in $\mathit{Sch}_{fppf}$.

A category fibred in groupoids $p : \mathcal{X} \to (\mathit{Sch}/S)_{fppf}$ which is representable by an algebraic space is a Deligne-Mumford stack.

If $F$ is an algebraic space over $S$, then the associated category fibred in groupoids $p : \mathcal{S}_ F \to (\mathit{Sch}/S)_{fppf}$ is a Deligne-Mumford stack.

If $X \in \mathop{\mathrm{Ob}}\nolimits ((\mathit{Sch}/S)_{fppf})$, then $(\mathit{Sch}/X)_{fppf} \to (\mathit{Sch}/S)_{fppf}$ is a Deligne-Mumford stack.

**Proof.**
It is clear that (2) implies (3). Parts (1) and (2) are equivalent by Lemma 92.12.4. Hence it suffices to prove (2). First, we note that $\mathcal{S}_ F$ is stack in sets since $F$ is a sheaf (Stacks, Lemma 8.6.3). A fortiori it is a stack in groupoids. Second the diagonal morphism $\mathcal{S}_ F \to \mathcal{S}_ F \times \mathcal{S}_ F$ is the same as the morphism $\mathcal{S}_ F \to \mathcal{S}_{F \times F}$ which comes from the diagonal of $F$. Hence this is representable by algebraic spaces according to Lemma 92.9.4. Actually it is even representable (by schemes), as the diagonal of an algebraic space is representable, but we do not need this. Let $U$ be a scheme and let $h_ U \to F$ be a surjective étale morphism. We may think of this as a surjective étale morphism of algebraic spaces. Hence by Lemma 92.10.3 the corresponding $1$-morphism $(\mathit{Sch}/U)_{fppf} \to \mathcal{S}_ F$ is surjective and étale.
$\square$

The following result says that a Deligne-Mumford stack whose inertia is trivial “is” an algebraic space. This lemma will be obsoleted by the stronger Proposition 92.13.3 below which says that this holds more generally for algebraic stacks...

Lemma 92.13.2. Let $S$ be a scheme contained in $\mathit{Sch}_{fppf}$. Let $\mathcal{X}$ be an algebraic stack over $S$. The following are equivalent

$\mathcal{X}$ is a Deligne-Mumford stack and is a stack in setoids,

$\mathcal{X}$ is a Deligne-Mumford stack such that the canonical $1$-morphism $\mathcal{I}_\mathcal {X} \to \mathcal{X}$ is an equivalence, and

$\mathcal{X}$ is representable by an algebraic space.

**Proof.**
The equivalence of (1) and (2) follows from Stacks, Lemma 8.7.2. The implication (3) $\Rightarrow $ (1) follows from Lemma 92.13.1. Finally, assume (1). By Stacks, Lemma 8.6.3 there exists a sheaf $F$ on $(\mathit{Sch}/S)_{fppf}$ and an equivalence $j : \mathcal{X} \to \mathcal{S}_ F$. By Lemma 92.9.5 the fact that $\Delta _\mathcal {X}$ is representable by algebraic spaces, means that $\Delta _ F : F \to F \times F$ is representable by algebraic spaces. Let $U$ be a scheme, and let $x : (\mathit{Sch}/U)_{fppf} \to \mathcal{X}$ be a surjective étale morphism. The composition $j \circ x : (\mathit{Sch}/U)_{fppf} \to \mathcal{S}_ F$ corresponds to a morphism $h_ U \to F$ of sheaves. By Bootstrap, Lemma 78.5.1 this morphism is representable by algebraic spaces. Hence by Lemma 92.10.4 we conclude that $h_ U \to F$ is surjective and étale. Finally, we apply Bootstrap, Theorem 78.6.1 to see that $F$ is an algebraic space.
$\square$

Proposition 92.13.3. Let $S$ be a scheme contained in $\mathit{Sch}_{fppf}$. Let $\mathcal{X}$ be an algebraic stack over $S$. The following are equivalent

$\mathcal{X}$ is a stack in setoids,

the canonical $1$-morphism $\mathcal{I}_\mathcal {X} \to \mathcal{X}$ is an equivalence, and

$\mathcal{X}$ is representable by an algebraic space.

**Proof.**
The equivalence of (1) and (2) follows from Stacks, Lemma 8.7.2. The implication (3) $\Rightarrow $ (1) follows from Lemma 92.13.2. Finally, assume (1). By Stacks, Lemma 8.6.3 there exists an equivalence $j : \mathcal{X} \to \mathcal{S}_ F$ where $F$ is a sheaf on $(\mathit{Sch}/S)_{fppf}$. By Lemma 92.9.5 the fact that $\Delta _\mathcal {X}$ is representable by algebraic spaces, means that $\Delta _ F : F \to F \times F$ is representable by algebraic spaces. Let $U$ be a scheme and let $x : (\mathit{Sch}/U)_{fppf} \to \mathcal{X}$ be a surjective smooth morphism. The composition $j \circ x : (\mathit{Sch}/U)_{fppf} \to \mathcal{S}_ F$ corresponds to a morphism $h_ U \to F$ of sheaves. By Bootstrap, Lemma 78.5.1 this morphism is representable by algebraic spaces. Hence by Lemma 92.10.4 we conclude that $h_ U \to F$ is surjective and smooth. In particular it is surjective, flat and locally of finite presentation (by Lemma 92.10.9 and the fact that a smooth morphism of algebraic spaces is flat and locally of finite presentation, see Morphisms of Spaces, Lemmas 65.37.5 and 65.37.7). Finally, we apply Bootstrap, Theorem 78.10.1 to see that $F$ is an algebraic space.
$\square$

## Comments (2)

Comment #4875 by Olivier de Gaay Fortman on

Comment #5157 by Johan on